We've come a long way from the quaint, but still essential, Sanborn Maps
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Technologies can produce maps, but its unique attribute is the ability to integrate, manipulate, and analyze spatial data and related statistical or descriptive data.
GIS provides tools for integrating, querying, and analyzing a wide variety of data types, such as scientific and cultural data, satellite imagery, and aerial photography, as well as data collected by individuals. This guide provides a sample of resources loosely classified geographically and thematically for common information needs.
1. Numerical Algorithms - enable you (the researcher) to assign data to a geographic reference.
2. The Statistics. Typically very large data sets because so many layers of data can be oriented to geography.
3. Optimization: the ability to orient the GIS to a particular area of research.
We can help you:
-Boland, Maeve A. "Geographic Information Systems." Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics,edited by Carl Mitcham, vol. 2, Macmillan Reference USA, 2005, pp. 856-857. Gale Virtual Reference Library, Accessed 26 Sept. 2017