1. Numerical Algorithms - enable you to assign data to a geographic reference.
2. Statistics. Data sets visualized with layers and oriented geographically.
3. Optimization: The ability to orient the GIS to a particular area of research.
LINK to a larger explanation of GIS.
Adapted from Boland, Maeve A. "Geographic Information Systems." Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics,edited by Carl Mitcham, vol. 2, Macmillan Reference USA, 2005, pp. 856-857.Gale Virtual Reference Library, Accessed 26 Sept. 2017
The fastest way to get started with Social Explorer is to use the Maps console.
Open Government Data initiatives promote "transparency, accountability, and value creation by making government data available to all" (OECD.org). Evaluate datasets found through open data portals as you would information sources. Máchová, Hub, Lnenicka recommend searchers consider the following criteria when selecting and searching government data:
- Are data sets organized in understandable categories?
- A complete list of datasets.
- Is there someone to contact to request a specific data set.
- Can you search according to category, publisher, format?
- Can you filter data sets in order to limit what you need to extract?
- Can you process data sets in a common structure such as CSV, JSON, or RDF?
- Do you need to register an account in order to access datasets?
Máchová, R., Hub, M., & Lnenicka, M. (2018). Usability evaluation of open data portals: Evaluating data discoverability, accessibility, and reusability from a stakeholders’ perspective. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 70(3), 252-268. http://dx.doi.org.arktos.nyit.edu/10.1108/AJIM-02-2018-0026
Typically large-scale maps, dating back to the 1500s, historical maps serve as primary research artifacts.
Fire Insurance Maps cover the United States, Canada, and Mexico from 1800s to the present and depicting the commercial, industrial, and residential sections of some twelve thousand cities and towns in the